1500 1655 accommodating change evolution iroquois onondaga
Fewsixteenthor seventeenth-century settlements havebeensystematically investigated andlittleisknownaboutcemeteries, wheremostearly European goods arefoundin Iroquoian cultures. The precise datingof sites alsoinvolves manyproblems. Some sites andwhole periods could beseveral decades earlierorlaterthanthedates Bradleyassigns. Hismainarguments arethat European goods probably 258 THE CANADIAN HISTORICAL REVIEW accompanied marineshell,whichwastradednorthatthistime,andthatthere islittleevidence of Europeangoodson archaeological sitesin the upper St Lawrence Valley.
This claimrunscounterto growinghistorical evidence of European tradewith nativepeople,firstalongthe Labradorcoast, thenat Tadoussac, andafter•58oasfarupriveras Montreal Island.
In the central portion of what is now New York State, this trend became particularly evident around A. 1000, or at the beginning of what has been termed the Late Woodland stage. One was an increased tendency toward sedentism, or the year-round occupation of a specific site.Bradley traces the origins of the Onondaga, beginning around a.d. Much attention is devoted to the sixteenth and early seventeenth centuries, which were marked by the introduction and growing popularity of European trade goods.Bradley shows how the Onondaga creatively used and viewed these exotic objects; such items as axes and kettles were adapted to meet traditional Native needs.During the period shortly after the first encounters with Europeans, the Onondaga successfully adjusted to changes in their world rather than being overwhelmed by them.Their accommodation resulted in such celebrated cross-cultural creations as wampum and the League of the Five Nations.
The Iroquoian people known as the Onondaga, who emerged as the core of the Five Nations Confederacy during the seventeenth century, were like most other native groups in the Northeast the result of a long and localized evolution.